Basic Concepts of Ancient Philosophy [59-60]


Sextus Empiricus: οὐσία κρόνου σωματική ["the bodily presence of time"].39 The true essence is time itself. Hegel: abstract intuition of the process; the intuited becoming. Harmoniously out of what is absolutely opposed.

b) λόγος40 as principle of beings.

ἓν πάντα ["all things one"]: frags. 50, 41.

Frag. 1: λόγος:

1. Speech, word: a) the disclosed, λεγόμενον, ["the uttered"], what is in the proper sense, what is understandable, the meaning. The manifested being itself as manifest; binding on everyone as this very thing that has become understandable. b) the disclosing, λέγειν. Not yet mere foundation, but that itself which makes something like a foundation accessible.

2. Reason [Vernunft].

3. Foundation: ὑποκείμενον.

4. What is addressed as something, in relation to, relatedness, proportion. Euclid.

Frag. 2, frag. 114: λόγος is common, withdrawn from the arbitrary, from random opinion. Frag. 29.

c) Disclosure and determination of the soul.41

ψυχῆ: frags. 115, 116, 45. Understanding, insight. What alone makes beings accessible in their Being. The soul augments itself, uncovers from itself, and pursues what is still covered up, unfolding out of itself the richness of meaning.

d) Assessment of Heraclitus's philosophy and transition to Parmenides

All this amounts to a new position: the Being of beings, and sense, law, "rule." Penetration into Being: the common, that which lies beyond every being, but which at the same time is in λόγος. Understanding.

Parmenides: Aristotle: αδύνατον {...} ταὐτόν ὑπολαμβάνειν εἶναι καὶ μὴ εἶναι [ "impossible to accept the same thing as being and not being"].42 {Heraclitus:}43 oppositional is, conflict; the dialectical itself in the Hegelian sense. The movement of constant opposition

39. Cf. Adversus mathematicos 10, 217/I. In Opera. Ed. H. Mutschmann, vol. 2. Leipzig, 1914 (henceforth, Adversus mathematicos), p. 348.

40. See Mörchen transcription, no. 26, p. 184.

41. See Mörchen transcription, no. 27, p. 184f.

42. Met. r 3, 1005b23f

43. Editor's interpolation

Basic Concepts of Ancient Philosophy (GA 22) by Martin Heidegger