§9. The Being-There of Human Beings as ψυχή [63–64]

making-manifest as fulfilled through speaking is a communicating, making-manifest-to-another, the mode of having-there-explicitly-with-one-another of the world—basic determination of the being of human beings in the world. It is a basic mode in which the being of the human being as with-one-another is revealed. The human being is the type of being that is a ζῷον πολιτικόν, that has, in its structure, the possibility of a cultivated being-in-the-πόλις.

We can grasp this determination, which has now come to the fore in view of the being of human beings, still more precisely. It should be noted that, with this determination, what is established is not a factual claim that human beings are never alone but are with several others. Rather, this being-with-one-another means a how of being: the human being is in the mode of being-with-one-another. The basic assertion that I myself make about myself as a living human being in my world, the primary assertion: “I am,” is genuinely false. One must say: “I am one (ich bin man).” “One” is, “one” undertakes this or that, “one” sees things in such a way. This One is the genuine how of everydayness, of average, concrete being-with-one-another. From out of this One, arises the manner and mode in which human beings see the world initially and for the most part, in which the world matters to human beings, in which human beings address the world. The one is the genuine how of the being of human beings in everydayness, and the genuine bearer of this One is language. The One maintains itself, has its genuine dominion, in language. With a more precise apprehension of the One, you can see that it is at the same time the possibility from which a genuine being-with-one-another in determinate modes arises. The basic determination of the being of human beings as ζῷον πολιτικόν is to be adhered to also in the subsequent explication concerning the “looking out,” θεωρεῖν, on the world, concerning that which is there in this looking out, the εἶδος, the “look” of the world as one customarily sees it. In the εἶδος, there lies a so-called universality, a universal validity, a claim to a definite averageness. This is the root of the basic determination of the universal that one so readily apprehends as the basic determination of the Greek concept of knowing. Therefore, we must keep in view, primarily and constantly, this one as a basic determination of the being of human beings. That is, in a certain sense, the result of the interpretation of the passage in Politics, Book 1, Chapter 2.

We will come to understand that the determination of being-with-one-another is equiprimordial with the determination of speaking-being. It would be altogether wrong to deduce one from the other; rather, the phenomenon of the being-there of human beings as such possesses equiprimordially speaking-being and being-with-one-another. These characters of the equiprimordiality of the being of human beings must be maintained uniformly if they are to actually hit upon the phenomenon.33

33. See Hs. p. 353 f.

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