The Interpretation of the Being-There of Human Beings [262–263]

to the circumstances. Furthermore, σῴζειν is used in a metaphorical sense: ὁ θεὸς σῴζει τὸν οὐρανόν, “God preserves the heavens.” “Preserve” is meant in the sense of not-letting-perish, maintaining-in-being-there. Σῴζειν, σωτηρία: counter-concepts to φθορά, to “disappearing-out-of-being-there.”

We still have to come to an understanding in what follows as to how fear and the πάθη stand in connection with λόγος, insofar as λόγος is taken as speaking-with-one-another, which has the function of working out the interpretation of being-there in its everydayness. Insofar as the πάθη are not merely an annex of psychical processes, but are rather the ground out of which speaking arises, and which what is expressed grows back into, the πάθη, for their part, are the basic possibilites in which being-there itself is primarily oriented toward itself, finds itself. The primary being-oriented, the illumination of its being-in-the-world is not a knowing, but rather a finding-oneself that can be determined differently, according to the mode of being-there of a being. Only within the thus characterized finding-oneself and being-in-the-world is it possible to speak about things, insofar as they are stripped of the look they have in immediate relations. Now the possibility arises of coming to a definite concreteness that, in a certain sense, sets back in place the mode of seeing the world as it is indicated in advance by the πάθη. Only if one sees being-there in this way can one set the πάθη back in place. Only from this standpoint can one understand what was a strain for the Greeks, who were to a certain degree in love with λόγος: to work their way out toward a concreteness, from out of discussion and idle chatter. Only thus can we understand that it is false when one holds Greece in general to be a fantastical place, as if things just fell into the lap of these distinguished men.

§22. Supplements to the Explication of Being-There as Being-in-the-World

a) The ἕξις of ἀληθεύειν (Nicomachean Ethics Δ12–13)

We have brought the consideration of fear to a certain close. It is necessary to remember that πάθη are apprehended in the Rhetoric as πίστεις, insofar as they speak for a meaning that leads the living-with-one-another of human beings in the πόλις. These πίστεις are that ἐξ ὧν ἡ πρότασις, “that from which and on the basis of which, from whose particular givenness what is known is taken.” All argumentation speaks from out of something self-evident. The πάθη are determined by ἡδονή; they are characteristic of the finding-itself at each moment of being-there in its world. In the case of the consideration of φόβος, and of the πάθη in general, these are considered insofar as they are determinations of the hearer. However, everyone is with other beings in being-there, hearer and speaker equally. Thus the δόξα in whose cultivation the πάθη participate characterize the interpretedness of being-there in everydayness. The κοινωνία, “being-with-one-another,” is in the having-the-world-there-with-one-another,

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