70 I. 1
Being and Time

But the explication of Dasein in its average everydayness does not give us just average structures in the sense of a hazy indefiniteness. Anything which, taken ontically, is in an average way, can be very well grasped ontologically in pregnant structures which may be structurally indistinguishable from certain ontological characteristics [Bestimmungen] of an authentic Being of Dasein.

All explicata to which the analytic of Dasein gives rise are obtained by considering Dasein's existence-structure. Because Dasein's characters of Being are defined in terms of existentiality, we call them "existentialia". These are to be sharply distinguished from what we call "categories"—characteristics of Being for entities whose character is not that of Dasein.1 Here we are taking the expression "category" in its primary ontological signification, and abiding by it. In the ontology of the ancients, the entities we encounter within the world2 are taken as the basic examples for the interpretation of Being. Νοεῖν (or the λόγος, as the case may be) is accepted as a way of access to them.3 Entities are encountered therein. But the Being of these entities must be something which can be grasped in a distinctive kind of λέγειν (letting something be seen), so that this Being becomes intelligible in advance as that which it is-and as that which it is already in every entity. In any discussion (λόγος) of entities, we have previously addressed ourselves to Being; this addressing is κατηγορεῖσθαι.4 This signifies, in the first instance, making a public accusation, taking someone to task for something in the presence of everyone. When used ontologically, this term means taking an entity to task, as it were, for whatever it is as an entity—that is to say, letting everyone [45] see it in its Being. The κατηγορίαι, are what is sighted and what is visible in such a seeing.5 They include the various ways in which the nature of those entities which can be addressed and discussed in a λόγος may be determined a priori.

1 'Weil sie sich aus der Existenzialität bestimmen, nennen wir die Seinscharaktere des Daseins Existenzialien. Sie sind scharf zu trennen von den Seinsbestimmungen des nicht daseinsmässigen Seienden, die wir Kategorien nennen.'

2 '... das innerhalb der Welt begegnende Seiende.' More literally: 'the entity that encounters within the world.' While Heidegger normally uses the verb 'begegnen' in this active intransitive sense, a similar construction with the English 'encounter' is unidiomatic and harsh. We shall as a rule use either a passive construction (as in 'entities encountered') or an active transitive construction (as in 'entities we encounter').

3 'Als Zugangsart zu ihm gilt das νοεῖν bzw. der λόγος.' Here we follow the reading of the earlier editions. In the later editions, 'Zugangsart', which is used rather often, is here replaced by 'Zugangsort', which occurs very seldom and is perhaps a misprint. This later version might be translated as follows: 'νοεῖν (or the λόγος, as the case may be) is accepted as the locus of access to such entities.' On νοεῖν and λόγος see Section 7 above, especially H. 32-34.

4 'Das je schon vorgängige Ansprechen des Seins im Besprechen (λόγος) des Seienden ist das κατηγορεῖσθαι.'

5 'Das in solchem Sehen Gesichtete und Sichtbare ...' On 'Sehen' and 'Sicht' see H. 147·