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of this term. Every predication is what it is, only as a pointing-out. The second signification of "assertion" has its foundation in the first. Within this pointing-out, the elements which are Articulated in predication-the subject and predicate—arise. It is not by giving something a definite character that we first discover that which shows itself—the hammer—as such; but when we give it such a character, our seeing gets restricted to it in the first instance, so that by this explicit restriction1 of our view, that which is already manifest may be made explicitly manifest in its definite character. In giving something a definite character, we must, in the first instance, take a step back when confronted with that which is already manifest—the hammer that is too heavy. In 'setting down the subject', we dim entities down to focus in 'that hammer there', so that by thus dimming them down we may let that which is manifest be seen in its own definite character as a character that can be determined.2 Setting down the subject, setting down the predicate, and setting down the two together, are thoroughly 'apophantical' in the strict sense of the word.

3· "Assertion" means "communication" [Mitteilung], speaking forth [Heraussage]. As communication, it is directly related to "assertion" in the first and second significations. It is letting someone see with us what we have pointed out by way of giving it a definite character. Letting someone see with us shares with [teilt ... mit] the Other that entity which has been pointed out in its definite character. That which is 'shared' is our Being towards what has been pointed out-a Being in which we see it in common. One must keep in mind that this Being-towards is Being-in-the-world, and that from out of this very world what has been pointed out gets encountered. Any assertion, as a communication understood in this existential manner, must have been expressed.3 As something communicated, that which has been put forward in the assertion is something that Others can 'share' with the person making the assertion, even though the entity which he has pointed out and to which he has given a definite character is not close enough for them to grasp and see it. That which is put forward in the assertion is something which can be passed along in 'further retelling'. There is a widening of the range of that mutual sharing which sees. But at the same time, what has been pointed out may become veiled again in this further retelling, although even the kind of knowing which arises in such hearsay (whether knowledge that


1 'Einschränkung'. The older editions have 'Entschränkung'.

2 '... die "Subjektsetzung" blendet das Seiende ab auf "der Hammer da", urn durch den Vollzug der Entblendung das Offenbare in seiner bestirnrnbaren Bestirnmtheit aehen zu lassen.'

3 'Zur Aussage als der so existenzial verstandenen Mit-teilung gehort die Ausgesprochenheit.'

Being and Time (M&R) by Martin Heidegger page 197