36 INT. II
Being and Time

sought in a higher sphere. Being and its structure transcend every being and every possible existent determination of a being. Being is the transcendens pure and simple.* The transcendence of the being of Dasein is a distinctive one since in it lies the possibility and necessity of the most radical individuation. Every disclosure of being as the transcendens is transcendental knowledge. Phenomenological truth (disclosedness of being) is veritas transcendentalis.

Ontology and phenomenology are not two different disciplines which among others belong to philosophy. Both terms characterize philosophy itself, its object and procedure. Philosophy is universal phenomenological ontology, taking its departure from the hermeneutic of Dasein, which, as an analysis of existence [Existenz],† has fastened the end of the guideline of all philosophical inquiry at the point from which it arises and to which it returns.

The following investigations would not have been possible without the foundation laid by Edmund Husserl; with his Logical Investigations phenomenology achieved a breakthrough. Our elucidations of the preliminary concept of phenomenology show that its essential character does not consist in its actuality as a philosophical "movement."‡ Higher than actuality stands possibility. We can understand phenomenology solely by seizing upon it as a possibility.5

With regard to the awkwardness and "inelegance" of expression in the following analyses, we may remark that it is one thing to report [39] narratively about beings and another to grasp beings in their being. For the latter task not only most of the words are lacking but above all the "grammar." If we may allude to earlier and in their own right altogether incomparable researches on the analysis of being, then we should compare the ontological sections in Plato's Parmenides or the fourth chapter of the seventh book of Aristotle's Metaphysics with a narrative passage from Thucydides. Then we can see the stunning character of the formulations with which their philosophers challenged


* of course not transcendens--despite every metaphysical resonance-scholastic and Greek-Platonic 1rnw6v, rather transcendence as the ecstatic-temporality [Zeitlichkeit]temporality [Temporalitit]; but "horizon"! Beyng [Seyn] has "thought beyond" ["überdacht"] beyngs [Seyendes]. However, transcendence from the truth of beyng [Seyns]: the event [das Ereignis].

† "Existence" fundamental ontologically, i.e., itself related to the truth of being, and only in this way!

‡ i.e., not in the transcendental-philosophic direction of Kantian critical idealism.


5. If the following investigation takes any steps forward in disclosing "the things themselves" the author must above all thank E. Husserl, who by providing his own incisive personal guidance and by very generously turning over his unpublished investigations familiarized the author during his student years in Freiburg with the most diverse areas of phenomenological research.


Martin Heidegger (GA 2) Being & Time (S&S)