§6. Categorial Intuition [73-74]

The term "truth" is originally and properly attributed to intentionality, but this is done on the basis of its being composed of both the intentio and the intentum. Traditionally, it is attributed in particular to acts of assertion, that is, relational acts of predication. But we need only to recall our explication of evidence to see that even nonrelational acts, that is, single-rayed monothetic acts of simple apprehension, likewise can be subject to demonstration, that is, can be true or false. Phenomenology thus breaks with the restriction of the concept of truth to relational acts, to judgments. The truth of relational acts is only one particular kind of truth for the objectifying acts of knowing in general. Without being explicitly conscious of it, phenomenology returns to the broad concept of truth whereby the Greeks (Aristotle) could call true even perception as such and the simple perception of something. Since it does not become conscious of this return, it cannot even get in touch with the original sense of the Greek concept of truth. But because of this connection it succeeds for the first time in bringing an understandable sense to the Scholastic definition of truth, which by way of a detour goes back to the Greeks, and in rescuing it from the confusing misreading which instituted the fateful introduction of the concept of image into the interpretation of knowledge.

While truth is traditionally linked to the relational acts of judgment, the term 'being' is readily attributed to the correlate of non-relational, single-rayed acts, as a specification of the object, of the subject matter itself. But just as truth must undergo a 'widening,' so too must 'being,' a widening not only from the subject matter but from the state of affairs- being and being-such-and-such. This may suffice for the characterization of the phenomenological interpretation of being and truth. What we have attained with it is first of all a preparation for the understanding of categorial intuition, but it is also of fundamental significance for our broader topical discussions.

b) Intuition and expression

It has already been noted that the fundamental sense of intuition is not necessarily limited to the originary apprehension of the sensory. In addition, the concept does not imply even the slightest assumption as to whether the intuition is realized in a flash and yields isolated pointlike objects. At the same time we have, with the closer examination of the intentional connection of intention and fulfillment and the elaboration of evidence as an identifying act, tacitly introduced phenomena without clarifying them. The determination of truth as a truth-relation, say, of a state of affairs, was accomplished by going back to propositions and assertions in which it was suggested that we consummate these assertions in perceiving the chair as a thing.