The Restriction of Being • 215

On the basis of all this, the final interpretation of Being that is secured in the word οὐσία works itself out and works itself to the fore. Οὐσία means Being in the sense of constant presence, presence at hand. Consequently, what really is, is what always is, ἀεὶ ὄν. What is continuously present is what we must go back to, in advance, in all comprehending and producing of anything: the model, the ἰδέα. What is continuously present is what we must go back to in all λόγος, asserting, as what always already lies at hand, the ὑποκείμενον, subjectum. What always already lies at hand before us is, from the point of view of φύσις, of emergence, what is πρότερον, the earlier, the a priori.

This determination of the Being of beings characterizes the way in which beings stand against all comprehending and asserting. The ὑποκείμενον is the forerunner of the later interpretation of the being as object.108 Apprehending, νοεῖν, is taken over by logos in the sense of the assertion. It thus becomes the apprehending that, in determining something as something, analyzes it, thinks it through by taking it through,109 διανοεῖσθαι. This analysis by means of assertions, διάνοια, is the essential determination of the understanding in the sense of the representing that makes judgments. Apprehending becomes understanding, apprehending becomes reason.

Christianity reinterprets the Being of beings as Being- created. Thinking and knowing come to be distinguished from faith (fides).

108. Gegenstand (object) etymologically means “that which stands against.”

109. Durch-nimmt, durchvernimmt: the word that Heidegger uses to translate νοεῖν, vernehmen (apprehend), is related to nehmen, to take. Durchnehmen (analyze, examine) etymologically means “to take through.” It is thus a good translation of διάνοια, etymologically the kind of νοεῖν that goes through.

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