Part II

of naïve consciousness, without in any way seeing the inner relation of time to hope, fear, and the like. Aristotle says:

τοῦ μὲν παρόντος αἴσθησις, τοῦ δὲ μέλλοντος ἐλπίς. τοῦ δὲ γενομένου μνήνη. (De memoria et reminiscencia, 449b27 ff.)

Perception {Hegel would say “representation”} is related to the present, hope to the future, remembrance to the past.

In the same context, Aristotle says:

εἴη δ’ἄν καὶ ἐπιστήμη τις ἐλπιστική, καθάπερ τινές φασι τὴν μαντικήν. (ibid., 449b11 ff.)

There may also be some kind of science related to hope, which some call divining or prophesy.

Ἑλπίς, hope, which is coordinated with the future, is also connected by Hegel with fear. We find this connection as well in Aristotle’s Rhetorica (B, 12), where he treats ἐλπίς in connection with φόβος [fear] and ἔλεος.37 ῎Ελεος does not mean “pity,” which is the way one usually translates it and thereby misunderstands the whole theory of the tragic in Aristotle. Rather, ἔλεος means “being in dread for” [Bangesein um]—in this case, someone else.38 It has nothing to do with pity in our sense of that term. [263]

§21. The influence of Aristotle on Hegel’s and Bergson’s interpretation of time

Before going on to a brief characterization of Bergson’s thesis—which corresponds materially with Hegel’s, even though it is set against it—I will make a brief aside. This morning one of my old students called my attention to Hegel’s explanation of time in his Jena Logic. The Jena Logic is a manuscript that was published only a few years ago (just before the war, and for the first time).39 Hegel prepared it for the purpose of his Privatdozent lectures in Jena. It is a first step toward what would become.

37.[GA 21, p. 262.23 and Moser, p. 550.13 (which indicates that the oversight is Heidegger’s own) incorrectly have “Rhetorica II, 2” (which treats of ὀργή, anger) instead of II, 12 (1389a21–22), where Aristotle writes: ἐλπὶς τοῦ μελλοντός ἐστιν, ἡ δὲ μνήνη τοῦ παροιχομένου. The topic of φόβος is treated in Rhetorica II, 5, and ἔλεος in II, 8. Φόβος and ἔλεος are treated together in Poetica 14 (1453b1 ff.).]

38. [The text Heidegger apparently has in mind is ἐλεοῦσιν ἐγγὺς αὐτοῖς τοῦ δεινοῦ ὄντος at Rhetorica II, 8 (1386a23–24).]

39. [G. W. F. Hegel, Hegels erstes System, ed. Hans Ehrenberg and Herbert Link

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