Anaximander's Saying

did he think the presence of what is present in terms of the objectivity of the propositional object. Rather, he thought it as ἐνέργεια which, however, is separated by an abyss from the actualitas of the actus purus of medieval scholasticism.

In any case, Parmenides' ἔστιν docs not mean the "is" which is the copula of the sentence. It names ἐόν, the presencing of what is present. The ἔστιν corresponds to the pure claim of being before the division into first and second οὐσία, into existentia and essentia. But in this way e6v is thought out of the concealed and hidden richness of the unconcealment of the ἐόντα, which was familiar to the early Greeks, without it being possible or necessary for them to experience this essential richness in all its aspects.

It is from out of the thoughtful experience of the ἐόν of the ἐόντα, nonconceptually spoken, that the fundamental words of the early thinking are said: Φύσις and Λόγος, Μοῖρα and Ἔρις, Ἀλήθεια and Ἓν. Only by means of Ἓν, which is to be thought back into the realm of the fundamental words, do ἐόν and εἶναι become the explicit words for what is present. Only from out of the destiny of being, the destiny of the "Ev, does the modern age, after essential upheavals, enter the epoch of the monadology of substance, which completes itself in the phenomenology of Spirit.

It was not Parmenides who provided the logical interpretation of being. On the contrary, it was logic - sprung from metaphysics but at the same time dominating it - which led to a state of affairs in which the essential richness of being contained in the early fundamental words, remained buried. This is what made it possible for being to assume the fatal status of being the emptiest and most universal concept.

Yet since the dawn of thinking "being" names the presencing of what is present in the sense of the lighting-sheltering gathering which is how the Λόγος is thought and named. The Λόγος (λέγειν, to gather or collect) is experienced out of Ἀλήθεια, the sheltering which discloses. In the conflicted essence of Ἀλήθεια is concealed the thoughtful essence of Ἔρις and Μοῖρα, in terms of which Φύσις is at the same time named.

It is within the language of these fundamental words, words which are thought from out of the experience of presencing, that the words of Anaximander's saying Speak: δίκη, τίσις, and ἀδικία.

The claim of being which speaks in these words determines the essence of philosophy. Philosophy does not arise from myth. It comes into being only out of, and in, thinking. But this thinking is the thinking of being. Thinking does not come into being. It is insofar as being presences. But the