Plato's Sophist [42,43,44]

In this exemplary deliberation, there is ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ an ἀληθεύειν, a disclosing—here, b6, νοεῖν—an ἀποφαίνεσθαι, a letting be seen of what is going to be produced. And what is here disclosed in the soul, and is present in it, is the εἶδος of the house, its outward look, its "physiognomy," as that is some day going to stand there and which constitutes the proper presence of the house. All this is anticipated ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ in a προαίρεσις. For, the house which is to be made is indeed not yet there. The expression τὸ εἶδος ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ refers to this anticipation of the εἶδος in the ψυχή. German expresses this well: the outward look is "pre-presentified" [vergegenwärtigt]. The house which will some day be present is presentified beforehand as it is going to look. This pre-presentification of the house is a disclosing of the εἶδος ἄνευ ὕλης (cf. bl2). The wood, etc., is not yet there. In a certain way, naturally, even the ὕλη is present in the deliberation: the material was taken into consideration while drawing up the plans. But the ὕλη in the expression ἄνευ ὕλης has to be understood in an ontological sense: the ὕλη is not, in the proper sense, present in τέχνη. The ὕλη is genuinely there only insofar as it is the "out of which" of the factually occurring finished house, in its being finished, and constitutes the proper presentness of that house. The ὕλη is τὸ ἕκαστον καθ᾽ αὐτό, what does not first need to be produced but is already available, and indeed in such a way that it is what genuinely brings the ποιούμενον into the present. ἐνυπάρχει γὰρ καὶ γίγνεται αὕτη (b32f.). "For it is the ὕλη which is there throughout and which becomes." In the deliberation, therefore, the ὕλη is not ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ—i.e., insofar as it ἐνυπάρχει, "is there throughout" and insofar as it γίγνεται, properly "becomes," i.e., insofar as it brings something into the present in the proper sense.

The εἶδος as εἶδος ἓν τῇ ψυχῇ is the anticipated presence of the house. And to the extent that a man pre-presentifies it, he carries out the entire execution of the plans while keeping his regard constantly fixed on this εἶδος. τὸ δὴ ποιοῦν καὶ ὅθεν ἄρχεται ἡ κίνησις τοῦ ὑγιαίνειν, ἐὰν μὲν ἀπὸ τέχνης, τὸ εἶδός ἐστι τὸ ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ (b21 ff.). "The genuine producer, and that which initiates the movement, is the εἶδος ἓν τῇ ψυχῇ." Hence the εἶδος is the very ἀρχή; it initiates the κίνησις. This κίνησις is first of all that of νόησις, of deliberation, and then the one of ποίησις, of the action which issues from the deliberation. Insofar as the εἶδος in this way, i.e., as ἀρχή of the total movement of the producing, is ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ, the ἀρχή of the ποιητόν is ἐν τῷ ποιοῦντι (Nic. Eth. VI, 4, 1140a13), i.e., it is a matter of τέχνη itself. On the other hand, the ποιούμενον, the finished house, is no longer an object of τέχνη. As a finished house, it escapes τέχνη. Now the τέλος, taken in its ontological character, is πέρας. πέρας λέγεται τὸ τέλος ἑκάστου (τοιοῦτον δ᾽ ἐφ᾽ ὃ ἡ κίνησις καὶ ἡ πρᾶξις) (cf. Met. V, 17, 1022a4ff.); furthermore, even the ἀρχή is in a certain sense πέρας; ἡ μὲν ἀρχὴ πέρας τι (cf. a12).