§7 [44-45]

Since therefore the τέλος has the same ontological character as the ἀρχή—namely, πέρας—and because in τέχνη the τέλος is precisely not preserved, τέχνη stands in the exact same relation to its beings as ἀληθεύειν does to its.

Because the ἔργον is no longer in the grasp of τέχνη, i.e., because the ἔργον escapes τέχνη, the latter is in a certain sense similar to τύχη, the accidental. τρόπον τινὰ περὶ τὰ αὐτά ἐστιν ἡ τύχη καὶ ἡ τέχνη (Nic. Eth. VI, 4, 1040a18): τύχη and τέχνη in a certain sense have to do with the same things. The essential characteristic of the accidental is that what emerges from it is out of its hands. The same occurs in the case of τέχνη : it may be developed in the most minute detail, and yet it does not have at its disposal, with absolute certainty, the success of the work. In the end the ἔργον is out of the hands of τέχνη. Here we see a fundamental deficiency in the ἀληθεύειν which characterizes τέχνη.

c) The εἶδος as ἀρχή of the κίνησις of τέχνη as a whole (Met. VII, 7). Νόησις and ποίησις. Τέχνη as ground of the interpretation of Being through the εἶδος.

In τέχνη, the εἶδος comes into play as ἀρχή. In τέχνη the εἶδος ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ is the ἀρχή of the κίνησις,, which is first that of νόησις and then that of ποίησις. In Book VII of the Metaphysics, chapter 7, Aristotle offers a penetrating presentation of the connection of νόησις and ποίησις, where he illustrates it with the examples of ὐγίεια and οἰκοδομική. He says: ἡ δὲ ὐγίεια ὁ ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ λόγος (1032b5). Health is the λόγος ἓν τῇ ψυχῇ. λόγος here means λεγόμενον, the spoken. On the other hand, Aristotle says: ἡ δὲ τέχνη λόγος τοῦ ἔργου ὁ ἄνευ ὕλης ἐστίν (De Partibus Animalium a, 1, 640a31f.). λόγος here means λέγειν, pre-presentification in speech. The λόγος qua λεγόμενον, however, is the εἶδος. We have here an echo of the Platonic way of speaking and seeing; for an εἶδος is nothing else than an Idea. Therefore Aristotle can write succinctly: ἡ οἰκοδομικὴ τὸ εἶδος τῆς οἰκίας, (cf. Met. VII, 7, 1032b13f.). "Architecture is the outward look of the house." Τέχνη is λόγος qua λέγειν of the λεγόμενον, i.e., of the εἶδος. οἰκοδομική, architecture, discloses and preserves the εἶδος, the outward look of the house. (Let it be noted in passing that this is also decisive for an understanding of the νόησις νοήσεως in Met. XII, chapters 9-10. There the question of genuine Being is raised. In chapter 9, that is νοῦς as the θειότατον, as the most genuine Being, to which, however, belong life and duration.) The εἶδος, which is disclosed and preserved in οἰκοδομική, is the ἀρχή of the κίνησις, first the one of νόησις and then the one of ποίησις. Let us pursue this movement more closely, as it occurs in its departure from the εἶδος ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ geschieht, γίγνεται δὴ τὸ ὑγιὲς νοήσαντος οὕτως: ἐπειδὴ τοδὶ ὐγίεια, ἀνάγκη εἰ ὑγιὲς ἔσται τοδὶ ὑπάρξαι... καὶ οὕτως ἀεὶ νοεῖ, ἕως ἂν ἀγάγῃ εἰς τοῦτο ὃ αὐτὸς δύναται ἔσχατον ποιεῖν (Met. VII, 7, 1032b6ff.).

Martin Heidegger (GA 19) Plato's Sophist