§8 [46-47]

Without wishing to preempt a discussion of the doctrine of Ideas, let us merely remark that we will understand the genesis, the primary sense, and what is opaque in Plato's Ideas only if we remain oriented toward the place where the εἶδος first steps forth quite naturally, i.e., in which mode of ἀληθεύειν it explicitly emerges. That is the point of departure for understanding why Plato says the Idea is genuine Being. We have seen that the εἶδος is the ἀρχή of the whole connection of νόησις and ποίησις in τέχνη. ή οἰκοδομική τὸ εἶδος τῆς οἰκίας. Τέχνη is the ground upon which something like the εἶδος becomes visible in the first place. We have therefore not dealt with τέχνη unadvisedly: in it the εἶδος first becomes present.

Let us represent the first division of the modes of ἀληθεύειν:

1. ἐπιστημονικόν ἐπιστήμη σοφία 2. λογιστικόν τέχνη φρόνησις

The characterization of the common modes of ἀληθεύειν, ἐπιστήμη and τέχνη, has made ἀληθεύειν itself more clear. These two basic possibilities, of the ἐπιστημονικόν and of the λογιστικόν, are not the highest ones. But we may not assume without further ado that the two other modes have to be the genuine possibility and full development, the ἀρετή, of the ἐπιστημονικόν and of the λογιστικόν. First of all, we care less for such systematics than for the concrete understanding of the phenomena of ἀληθεύειν itself. Ἀληθεύειν always has the meaning of upholding Dasein against degradation by the λεγόμενον, in such a way that Dasein will not be deceived by it.

In the further analyses of the remaining modes of ἀληθεύειν, Aristotle deals first with φρόνησις, circumspection, circumspective insight.

§8. The analysis of φρόνησις (Nic. Eth. VI, 5).

The analysis of φρόνησις begins by first determining what φρόνησις relates to, in order then to delimit it against each of the previously analyzed modes of ἀληθεύειν, ἐπιστήμη and τέχνη. In the delimitation against ἐπιστήμη, φρόνησις emerges as δόξα, and in the delimitation against τέχνη, as ἀρετή. That constitutes the tight cohesion of chapter 5 of Book VI of the Nicomachean Ethics, where Aristotle carries out the analysis of φρόνησις.

Martin Heidegger (GA 19) Plato's Sophist