54

Plato's Sophist [78-79]


Such reckoning suffices provided that by its means what alone is there becomes more understandable. And such a hermeneutic is precisely at stake here. If we as a matter of principle orient the Greek concept of Being to time, then this is not a mere haphazard idea but has a quite determined foundation. When we take up Plato our reasons will become clearer.

We now have to come to a closer understanding of both the εἶδος, i.e., the καθόλου, and, concurrently, the counter-concept of the καθ᾽ ἕκαστον.


§ 12. Excursus: καθόλου and καθ᾽ ἕκαστον. The way of
philosophy (especially:
Met. V, 26; Top. VI, 4; Phys. I, 1).1


The term καθόλου is composed out of κατά and ὅλον. The concept of ὅλον will be our path to a closer elucidation of the Being of the καθόλου. Aristotle provides an orientation toward the ὅλον in Metaphysics V, 26. There he understands the καθόλου as a determinate mode of the ὅλον.


a) The manifold meanings of ὅλον. Καθόλου as ὅλον
λεγόμενον (Met. V, 26).


The ὅλον is understood in many ways:

1.) ὅλον λέγεται οὗ τε μηθὲν ἄπεστι μέρος ἐξ ὧν λέγεται ὅλον φύσει (1023b26f.). "A ὅλον is something in which nothing is absent, in which no part, no relevant piece, is missing." Positively formulated, the ὅλον is the full presence of the being in all that pertains to its Being. Our expression "completeness" [Vollständigkeit] renders it very well; the being is com-plete, i.e., in its "full" state [in seinem vollen Stand]. It should be noted that Aristotle claims this same definition of ὅλον for the τέλειον as well. τέλειον λέγεται ἓν μὲν οὗ μὴ ἔστιν ἕξω τι λαβεῖν μηδὲ ἓν μόριον (Met. V, 26, 1023b27f.). "The τέλειον is in the first place that in which not even a single piece is missing. " The ὅλον thus means first of all the full presence of the pieces that make up the finished state of a being.

2.) (ὅλον λέγεται) καὶ τὸ περιέχον τὰ περιεχόμενα ὥστε ἕν τι εἶναι ἐκεῖνα (Met. V, 26, 1023b27f.) The ὅλον is the comprehensive, in such a way that the things comprehended form something like a one. We have no corresponding expression for this second sense of ὅλον; "whole" [das "Ganze "] will not do. This second sense is determined in two ways. The ὅλον is περιέχον (b28f.), comprehensive:


1. There is no record of this excursus (pp. 54-62) in Heidegger's manuscript. The editor offers it based on the lecture notes of H. Jonas, F. Schalk, and H. Weiß.