Lecture Thirteen [181-183]

in a genuinely Greek manner. Thought in a Greek manner, λόγον διδόναι means "to tender something present in whatever way it is presencing and lying present," namely, to tender it to an assembling perception. Insofar as every being continues to be determined by being, that means, by grounding, beings themselves are always founded and grounded beings—and this in the various manners whose plurality and provenance cannot be discussed here.

{Only two references should be briefly made as to how, from early on in the history of thinking, being and ground/reason converge, so much so that their belonging-together and provenance remain concealed. But this convergence is now a falling-asunder. Of course, as soon as we have for once brought this curious belonging-together into view, it is, as always in such cases, easy to find and point it out everywhere.

Though it had other names in early Western thinking, "being" means λόγος. Heraclitus, who is the same thinker who spoke this word [λόγος], also called being φύσις.

As an allowing to arise that also assembles and harbors, being is that First from which those that arise first arise as the enduring particulars of what it has assembled-being is the First from which all this proceeds into the unconcealed that has opened up. As λόγος, being is the First from which whatever is present presences—in Greek: τὸ πρῶτον ὅθεν. "The first from which" is that from out of which commences every particular being that is, and that by which it continues to be held in the sway as something that has commenced; in Greek "to commence" is called ἄρχειν. Λόγος thus develops into the πρῶτον ὅθεν, that is, into the ἀρχή—said in the Latin of the Romans, into the "principium." The fact that all thinking and acting, every modus vivendi seeks Principles in a representational way and holds itself to them stems from the essence of being as λόγος and φύσις. Here the belonging-together of being and Principle and ratio, of being and reason as Rational ground is instituted. But all of this is in no way obvious; rather, it is a single mystery of a unique Geschick.

Being, in the sense of λόγος, is what assembles and allows something to lie present. In λόγος, what lies present comes into the light of day, and indeed as being the son of thing due to which particular beings stand one way rather than some other way vis-a-vis each other. That due to which something is and is the way it is rather than some other way shows itself as the sort of thing that is indebted to what we just named [namely, being in the sense of λόγος]. As something already lying present, that to which something is due-that to which something is indebted—is called αἴτον in Greek. The Romans translate it with the word causa; [in German] one says: Ursache [cause]. Both—Ursachen [causes] and Principles—have the character of being grounds; because they stem from the essence of ground/reason, they belong, along with this essence, with being. Therefore, Principles and causes determine beings on into the future and link all representations of beings. The sovereignty and claim of principles and