As has already been suggested, one could take the view that the problem of revenge, and of deliverance from revenge, is peculiar to ethics and moral education-while the anatomy of the desire for revenge, as a basic trait of man and thought so far, is a task for "psychology." Judged by their wording, and even by their headings, Nietzsche's discussions do indeed move in the traditional conceptual framework of ethics and psychology. But in substance, Nietzsche thinks of everything that falls under the heads of "ethics" and "psychology" in terms of metaphysics, that is, with a view to the question how the Being of beings as a whole is determined, and how it concerns man. "Ethics" and "psychology" are grounded in metaphysics. When it comes to saving man's essential nature, psychology—whether as such or in the form of psychotherapy—is helpless; ethics as a mere doctrine and imperative is helpless unless man first comes to have a different fundamental relation to Being—unless man of his own accord, so far as in him lies, begins at last to hold his nature open for once to the essential relation toward Being, no matter whether Being specifically addresses itself to man, or whether it still lets him be speechless because he is painless. But even if we do no more than bear and endure this speechlessness and painlessness, our nature is already open to the claim of Being. Yet even this openness to Being, which thinking can prepare, is of itself helpless to save man. A real openness in his relatedness to Being is a necessary though not sufficient condition for saving him. And yet, precisely when thinking plies its proper trade, which is to rip away the fog that conceals beings as such, it must be concerned not to cover up the rift. Hegel once expressed the point as follows, though only in a purely metaphysical respect and dimension: "Better a mended sock than a tom one—not so with self-consciousness." Sound common sense, bent on utility, sides with the "mended" sock. On the other hand, reflection on the sphere in which particular beings are revealed—