that concerns the λόγος. Λόγος is the noun to the verb λέγειν. Logic understands λέγειν in the sense of λέγειν τι κατά τινος, to say something about something. The something about which a statement is made is in such a case what lies beneath it. What lies beneath is called in Greek ὑποκείμενον, in Latin subiectum. That about which the λέγειν states something is the subject of the statement; and that which is stated about it is the predicate. The λόγος, as λέγειν τι κατά τινος", is the assertion of something about something. The what-about of every statement is somehow given. It touches upon, is contiguous to the statement. It is part of the contiguity in the widest sense.

Logic, as the doctrine of the λόγος, considers thinking to be the assertion of something about something. According to logic, such speech is the basic characteristic of thinking. In order for such speech to be possible in the first place, the something about which something is said—the subject—and that which is said—the predicate—must be compatible in speech. Incompatible things cannot be made into a unit by a spoken statement: take, for example, "triangle" and "laughter." The sentence "The triangle is laughing" cannot be said. It can be said, of course, in the sense that it can be pronounced as a mere string of words; we just did so. But it can not be said really, in terms of what it says. 1be things that are evoked by "triangle" and "laughing" introduce something contradictory into their relation. The terms do make a declaration, but contradict each other. They thus make the proposition impossible. To be possible, the proposition must from the start avoid self-contradiction. This is why the law, that contradiction must be avoided, is considered a basic tenet of the proposition. Only because thinking is defined as λόγος, as an utterance, can the statement about contradiction perform its role as a law of thought.

All this has long been known, perhaps too long, so that we no longer allow ourselves to give thought to the definition